Negative symptoms of schizophrenia correlate with impairment on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test

Koko Ishizuka, Katsunori Tajinda, Carlo Colantuoni, Masahiko Morita, Jessica Winicki, Cindy Le, Sandra Lin, David Schretlen, Akira Sawa, Nicola G. Cascella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Deficits in odor identification have been most frequently described in schizophrenia (SZ). A relationship between dysfunction in odor identification and negative symptoms of SZ has also been reported. Furthermore, deficit SZ (a subtype of the illness with primary, enduring negative symptoms) has been found to be associated with a particularly poor performance on odor identification tests indicating that deficits in smell identification could be differentially expressed in some subtypes of SZ. We describe correlations of performance on smell identification with positive and negative symptoms of SZ. Patients with SZ (n = 15) and normal controls (n = 19) were tested by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS). SZ patients performed more poorly on the UPSIT test than did normal controls. Consistent with previous findings, we observed a correlation of SANS with UPSIT performance. In particular, specific subdomains of SANS, such as blunted affect, apathy and anhedonia, were associated with odor identification deficits. Furthermore, UPSIT score predicts these subdomains of negative symptoms. No correlation was observed between positive symptom and odor identification deficits. Our study further reinforces a relation between olfactory identification deficit and negative symptoms in SZ and suggests that smell identification could be a candidate endophenotype relevant to negative symptoms of SZ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-110
Number of pages5
JournalNeuroscience Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010


  • Endophenotype
  • Negative symptoms
  • Olfactory system
  • Schizophrenia
  • Smell identification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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