Need for criteria for the diagnosis and severity assessment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines

Miho Sekimoto, Tadahiro Takada, Yoshifumi Kawarada, Yuji Nimura, Masahiro Yoshida, Toshihiko Mayumi, Fumihiko Miura, Keita Wada, Masahiko Hirota, Yuichi Yamashita, Steven Strasberg, Henry A. Pitt, Jacques Belghiti, Eduardo de Santibanes, Thomas R. Gadacz, Serafin C. Hilvano, Sun Whe Kim, Kui Hin Liau, Sheung Tat Fan, Giulio BelliVibul Sachakul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The Tokyo Guidelines formulate clinical guidance for healthcare providers regarding the diagnosis, severity assessment, and treatment of acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis. The Guidelines were developed through a comprehensive literature search and selection of evidence. Recommendations were based on the strength and quality of evidence. Expert consensus opinion was used to enhance or formulate important areas where data were insufficient. A working group, composed of gastroenterologists and surgeons with expertise in biliary tract surgery, supplemented with physicians in critical care medicine, epidemiology, and laboratory medicine, was selected to formulate draft guidelines. Several other groups (including members of the Japanese Society for Abdominal Emergency Medicine, the Japan Biliary Association, and the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery) have reviewed and revised the draft guidelines. To build a global consensus on the management of acute biliary infection, an international expert panel, representing experts in this area, was established. Between April 1 and 2, 2006, an International Consensus Meeting on acute biliary infections was held in Tokyo. A consensus was determined based on best available scientific evidence and discussion by the panel of experts. This report describes the highlights of the Tokyo International Consensus Meeting in 2006. Some important areas focused on at the meeting include proposals for internationally accepted diagnostic criteria and severity assessment for both clinical and research purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-14
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute cholangitis
  • Acute cholecystitis
  • Evidence-based medicine
  • Practice guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Hepatology


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