Naloxone formulation for overdose reversal preference among patients receiving opioids for pain management

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11 Scopus citations


Background: Opioid-related overdose has increased 137% in the past decade. Training nonmedical bystanders to administer naloxone (Narcan™) is a widely-researched intervention that has been associated with decreases in overdose rates in the communities in which it has been implemented. A recent review advocated for noninjectable formulations of naloxone, however patient preference for naloxone formulations has not yet been examined (Strang et al., 2016). Methods: Two cohorts of respondents (N1 = 501, N2 = 172) who reported currently being prescribed an opioid for pain management were recruited through the crowd-sourcing program Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to assess their preference for naloxone formulations. All respondents were provided a description of different formulations and asked to indicate all formulations they would be willing to administer for overdose reversal and to then rank formulations in order of preference. Results: Results were remarkably similar across both cohorts. Specifically, respondents preferred noninjectable formulations (intranasal, sublingual, buccal) over injectable (intravenous, intramuscular) formulations. A small percent (8.9%–9.8%) said they would never be willing to administer naloxone. An identical percent of respondents in both cohorts (44.9%) rated intranasal as their most preferred formulation. Conclusions: Two independent cohorts of respondents who were receiving opioid medications for pain management reported a preference for noninjectable over injectable formulations of naloxone to reverse an opioid overdose. Though initial preference is only one of many factors that impacts ultimate public acceptance and uptake of a new product, these results support the additional research and development of noninjectable naloxone formulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-60
Number of pages5
JournalAddictive Behaviors
StatePublished - Nov 2018


  • Naloxone
  • Narcan
  • Opioid
  • Opioid use disorder
  • Overdose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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