Multimethod longitudinal HIV drug resistance analysis in antiretroviral-therapy-naive patients

Aubin J. Nanfack, Andrew D. Redd, Jude S. Bimela, Genesis Ncham, Emmanuel Achem, Andrew N. Banin, Allison R. Kirkpatrick, Stephen F. Porcella, Lucy A. Agyingi, Josephine Meli, Vittorio Colizzi, Arthur Nádas, Miroslaw K. Gorny, Phillipe N. Nyambi, Thomas C. Quinn, Ralf Duerra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The global intensification of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lead to increased rates of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) mutations in treated and also in ART-naive patients. ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients from Cameroon were subjected to a multimethod HIVDR analysis using amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR, Sanger sequencing, and longitudinal next-generation sequencing (NGS) to determine their profiles for the mutations K103N, Y181C, K65R, M184V, and T215F/Y. We processed 66 ARTnaive HIV-1-positive patients with highly diverse subtypes that underlined the predominance of CRF02-AG and the increasing rate of F2 and other recombinant forms in Cameroon. We compared three resistance testing methods for 5 major mutation sites. Using Sanger sequencing, the overall prevalence of HIVDR mutations was 7.6% (5/66) and included all studied mutations except K65R. Comparing ARMS-PCR with Sanger sequencing as a reference, we obtained a sensitivity of 100% (5/5) and a specificity of 95% (58/61), caused by three false-positive calls with ARMS-PCR. For 32/66 samples, we obtained NGS data and we observed two additional mismatches made up of minority variants (7% and 18%) that might not be clinically relevant. Longitudinal NGS analyses revealed changes in HIVDR mutations in all five positive subjects that could not be attributed to treatment. In one of these cases, superinfection led to the temporary masking of a resistant virus. HIVDR mutations can be sensitively detected by ARMS-PCR and sequencing methods with comparable performances. Longitudinal changes in HIVDR mutations have to be considered even in the absence of treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2785-2800
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of clinical microbiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Armspcr
  • Drug resistance mutations
  • Drug-naive patients
  • HIV
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Longitudinal changes
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Sanger sequencing
  • Subtype diversity
  • Superinfection
  • Transmitted drug resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)


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