Mortality from Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Among Hospitalized Patients in the USA

Bolin Niu, Brian Kim, Berkeley N. Limketkai, Jing Sun, Zhiping Li, Tinsay Woreta, Po Hung Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background and Aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication of cirrhosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in hospitalized patients presenting with SBP. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all hospitalizations involving SBP from 2006 to 2014 using the International Classification of Disease-9-CM Code. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between SBP mortality and factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and concomitant medical conditions at presentation (e.g., variceal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, acute renal failure, coagulopathy, and other infections including pneumonia). The lengths of stay (LOS) and total charges were also examined. Results: From 2006 to 2014, there were 88,167 SBP hospitalizations with 29,963 deaths (17.6% in-hospital mortality). The mean age of patients who died in the hospital was higher (58.2 years vs. 55.8, p < 0.01) than those who survived the admission. Acute alcoholic hepatitis was noted among a higher proportion of patients who died (7.0 vs. 5.9%, p < 0.01), who were also likely to have more medical comorbidities. In multivariable analysis, older age, female gender, hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, variceal hemorrhage, sepsis, pneumonia, and acute kidney injury were associated with increased in-hospital mortality. This group also had longer LOS (11.6 days vs. 9.1, p < 0.01) and higher total charges ($138,273 vs. $73,533, p < 0.01). Conclusion: SBP is associated with significant in-hospital mortality, especially in patients with concurrent risk factors. SBP remains a significant burden to the healthcare system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1327-1333
Number of pages7
JournalDigestive diseases and sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2018


  • Cirrhosis
  • In-hospital
  • Mortality
  • Risk factors
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology


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