The phase 3 Study of ASP2215 Versus Salvage Chemotherapy in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) With FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase (FLT3) Mutation (ADMIRAL) trial demonstrated the superiority of the FLT3 inhibitor, gilteritinib, to salvage chemotherapy (SC) in patients with FLT3-mutated relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML. Baseline comutations, FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) allelic ratio and length, and treatment-emergent mutations were analyzed in patients in the ADMIRAL trial. Baseline comutations were grouped according to gene subgroups (DNA methylation/ hydroxymethylation, transcription, chromatin–spliceosome, receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signaling, TP53-aneuploidy, NPM1, DNMT3A, DNMT3A/NPM1, WT-1, and IDH1/IDH2). Across all but 1 gene subgroup (TP53-aneuploidy), higher pretransplant response rates and a trend toward longer overall survival were observed with gilteritinib vs SC. Patients with DNMT3A/NPM1 comutations who received gilteritinib had the most favorable outcomes of any molecular subgroup analyzed. Survival outcomes with gilteritinib were not adversely affected by FLT3-ITD allelic ratio, FLT3-ITD length, or multiple FLT3-ITD mutations. Among patients who relapsed on gilteritinib, Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and FLT3 F691L gene mutations were the most common mutational events associated with treatment resistance. However, the occurrence of Ras/MAPK pathway gene mutations at baseline did not preclude a clinical benefit from gilteritinib. Acquisition of multiple Ras/MAPK pathway gene mutations at relapse suggests a high level of pathway reactivation is needed to overcome the gilteritinib treatment effect. These findings provide insight into the R/R AML molecular profile and the impact of FLT3 inhibitors on mutational evolution associated with treatment resistance and benefit of gilteritinib across a wide spectrum of molecular and genetic subgroups in FLT3-mutated R/R AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02421939.
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