Molecular imaging reporting and data systems (MI-RADS): a generalizable framework for targeted radiotracers with theranostic implications

Rudolf A. Werner, Ralph A. Bundschuh, Lena Bundschuh, Mehrbod S. Javadi, Takahiro Higuchi, Alexander Weich, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kenneth J. Pienta, Andreas K. Buck, Martin G. Pomper, Michael A. Gorin, Constantin Lapa, Steven P. Rowe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Both prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)- and somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted positron emission tomography (PET)-based imaging agents for prostate carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors, respectively, are seeing rapidly expanding use. In addition to diagnostic applications, both classes of radiotracers can be used to triage patients for theranostic endoradiotherapy. While interpreting PSMA- or SSTR-targeted PET/computed tomography (CT) scans, the reader has to be aware of certain pitfalls. Adding to the complexity of the interpretation of those imaging agents, both normal biodistribution, and also false-positive and -negative findings differ between PSMA- and SSTR-targeted PET radiotracers. Herein summarized under the umbrella term molecular imaging reporting and data systems (MI-RADS), two novel RADS classifications for PSMA- and SSTR-targeted PET imaging are described (PSMA- and SSTR-RADS). Notably, PSMA- and SSTR-RADS are structured in a reciprocal fashion, i.e., if the reader is familiar with one system, the other system can readily be applied, as well. In the present review, we will discuss the most common pitfalls on PSMA- and SSTR-targeted PET/CT, briefly introduce PSMA- and SSTR-RADS, and define a potential future role of the umbrella framework MI-RADS compared to other classification systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-522
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018


  • Neuroendocrine tumor
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)
  • RADS
  • Reporting and data systems
  • Somatostatin receptor (SSTR)
  • Standardization
  • Theranostics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Molecular imaging reporting and data systems (MI-RADS): a generalizable framework for targeted radiotracers with theranostic implications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this