Six children, from 1.3 to 18 years of age, with severe hypertension associated with the hemolytic uremic syndrome, periarteritis, and renal transplant rejection received minoxidil, an antihypertensive agent, for three to 36 weeks. All had severe hypertension resistant to oral antihypertensive medications; five required frequent intravenous diazoxide therapy prior to minoxidil therapy. The mean pretreatment systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 176 and 117 mm Hg, respectively. Following treatment, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 133 and 82 mm Hg, respectively. Concomitant antihypertensive medications were decreased in all six patients once optimal blood pressure control was obtained. The initial dosage of minoxidil was 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/day; maximal dosage for blood pressure was 0.3 to 1.4 mg/kg/day. Major complications of therapy were fluid retention and hirsutism. Transient asymptomatic pericardial effusions occurred in two patients. Three patients on prolonged minoxidil therapy had persistent increases in right ventricular end diastolic diameters. Minoxidil is an effective oral antihypertensive agent for treatment of severe hypertension in pediatric patients. Avoidance of fluid retention is mandatory to prevent congestive heart failure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health