Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy: Outcomes in 222 Patients

James D. Luketich, Miguel Alvelo-Rivera, Percival O. Buenaventura, Neil A. Christie, James S. McCaughan, Virginia R. Litle, Philip R. Schauer, John M. Close, Hiran C. Fernando, Michael J. Zinner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

731 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess our outcomes after minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE). Summary Background Data: Esophagectomy has traditionally been performed by open methods. Results from most series include mortality rates in excess of 5% and hospital stays frequently greater than 10 days. MIE has the potential to improve these results, but only a few small series have been reported. This report summarizes our experience of 222 cases. Methods: From 1996 to 2002, MIE was performed in 222 patients. Indications for operation included high-grade dysplasia (n = 47) and cancer (n = 175). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used in 78 (35.1%) and radiation in 36 (16.2%). Initially, a laparoscopic transhiatal approach was used (n = 8), but subsequently our approach evolved to include thoracoscopic mobilization (n = 214). Results: There were 186 men and 36 women. Median age was 66.5 years (range, 39-89). Nonemergent conversion to open procedure was required in 16 patients (7.2%). MIE was successfully completed in 206 (92.8%) patients. The median intensive care unit stay was 1 day (range, 1-30); hospital stay was 7 days (range, 3-75). Operative mortality was 1.4% (n = 3). Anastomotic leak rate was 11.7% (n = 26). At a mean follow-up of 19 months (range, 1-68), quality of life scores were similar to preoperative values and population norms. Stage specific survival was similar to open series Conclusions: MIE offers results as good as or better than open operation in our center with extensive minimally invasive and open experience. In this single institution experience, we observed a lower mortality rate (1.4%) and shorter hospital stay (7 days) than most open series. Given these results, we are now developing an intergroup trial (ECOG 2202) to assess MIE in a multicenter setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)486-495
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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