MIND Demons: Symmetric Diffeomorphic Deformable Registration of MR and CT for Image-Guided Spine Surgery

Sureerat Reaungamornrat, Tharindu De Silva, Ali Uneri, Sebastian Vogt, Gerhard Kleinszig, Akhil J. Khanna, Jean Paul Wolinsky, Jerry L. Prince, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Intraoperative localization of target anatomy and critical structures defined in preoperative MR/CT images can be achieved through the use of multimodality deformable registration. We propose a symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration algorithm incorporating a modality-independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND) and a robust Huber metric for MR-to-CT registration. The method, called MIND Demons, finds a deformation field between two images by optimizing an energy functional that incorporates both the forward and inverse deformations, smoothness on the integrated velocity fields, a modality-insensitive similarity function suitable to multimodality images, and smoothness on the diffeomorphisms themselves. Direct optimization without relying on the exponential map and stationary velocity field approximation used in conventional diffeomorphic Demons is carried out using a Gauss-Newton method for fast convergence. Registration performance and sensitivity to registration parameters were analyzed in simulation, phantom experiments, and clinical studies emulating application in image-guided spine surgery, and results were compared to mutual information (MI) free-form deformation (FFD), local MI (LMI) FFD, normalized MI (NMI) Demons, and MIND with a diffusion-based registration method (MIND-elastic). The method yielded sub-voxel invertibility (0.008 mm) and nonzero-positive Jacobian determinants. It also showed improved registration accuracy in comparison to the reference methods, with mean target registration error (TRE) of 1.7 mm compared to 11.3, 3.1, 5.6, and 2.4 mm for MI FFD, LMI FFD, NMI Demons, and MIND-elastic methods, respectively. Validation in clinical studies demonstrated realistic deformations with sub-voxel TRE in cases of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7484313
Pages (from-to)2413-2424
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE transactions on medical imaging
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2016


  • CT
  • Demons algorithm
  • MIND
  • MRI
  • deformable image registration
  • image-guided surgery
  • multimodality image registration
  • symmetric diffeomorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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