Micronutrient intake and the probability of nutrient adequacy among children 9-24 months of age: Results from the MAL-ED birth cohort study

D. A. Antiporta, R. Ambikapathi, A. Bose, B. Maciel, T. C. Mahopo, C. Patil, A. Turab, M. P. Olortegui, M. Islam, A. Bauck, B. J.J. McCormick, L. E. Caulfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To estimate the total energy and micronutrient intakes of children 9-24 months of age and evaluate the probability of adequacy (PA) of the diet in seven MAL-ED sites. Design: Cohort study. Food intake was registered monthly using 24-h recalls beginning at 9 months. We estimated PA for thirteen nutrients and overall mean PA (MPA) by site and 3-month periods considering estimated breast milk intake. Setting: Seven sites in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Participants: 1669 children followed from birth to 24 months of age. Results: Median estimated %energy from breast milk ranged from 4 to 70 % at 9-12 months, and declined to 0-39 % at 21-24 months. Iron bioavailability was low for all sites, but many diets were of moderate bioavailability for zinc. PA was optimal for most nutrients in Brazil and South Africa, except for iron and vitamin E (both), calcium and zinc (South Africa). PA for zinc increased only for children consuming a diet with moderate bioavailability. MPA increased 12-24 months as the quantity of complementary foods increased; however, PA for vitamin A remained low in Bangladesh and Tanzania. PA for vitamins D and E and iron was low for most sites and age groups. Conclusions: MPA increased from 12 to 24 months as children consumed higher quantities of food, while nutrient density remained constant for most nutrients. Ways to increase the consumption of foods containing vitamins D, E and A, and calcium are needed, as are ways to increase the bioavailability of iron and zinc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2592-2602
Number of pages11
JournalPublic health nutrition
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Child nutrition
  • Cohort studies
  • Diet
  • Micronutrients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Micronutrient intake and the probability of nutrient adequacy among children 9-24 months of age: Results from the MAL-ED birth cohort study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this