Methods for hazard assessment from viewing fiber optics with eye loupes

Wesley J. Marshall, John Bell, David H. Sliney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In 1998, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TC76 included a formal condition 2 to account for the additional hazard of viewing a highly diverging beam with optical aids. However, recent analysis of ocular exposure for condition 2 revealed that the measurement criteria currently used in the IEC Standard to account for these additional hazards are overly conservative. Efforts are underway to develop better methods that address viewing a diffuse extended source and visible sources of photochemical retinal hazards.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-187
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Laser Applications
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Angular subtense
  • ANSI Z136
  • Apparent source
  • Extended source
  • IEC 60825-1
  • Laser safety
  • Laser source
  • Laser standard
  • Maximum permissible exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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