Medullary thyroid carcinoma: recent advances in identification, treatment, and prognosis

Marisa A. Bartz-Kurycki, Omowunmi E. Oluwo, Lilah F. Morris-Wiseman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that represents <5% of all thyroid malignancies and is generally more aggressive than differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study is to provide an update, through review of clinical studies of patients with MTC published between January 1, 2016, and June 1, 2021, on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of MTC. This review focuses on updates in biochemical testing, imaging, hereditary disease, surgical management, adjuvant therapies, and prognosis. Recent advances reviewed herein have sought to diagnose MTC at earlier stages of disease, predict when patients with a hereditary syndrome may develop MTC, use functional imaging to assess for distant metastases, perform optimal initial surgery with appropriate lymphadenectomy, employ targeted systemic therapies for patients with progressive metastatic disease, and better predict patient-specific outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
StatePublished - 2021


  • calcitonin
  • hereditary
  • medullary thyroid cancer
  • neuroendocrine
  • thyroidectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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