Meconium atazanavir concentrations and early language outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected infants with prenatal atazanavir exposure

Sarah K. Himes, Yanling Huo, George K. Siberry, Paige L. Williams, Mabel L. Rice, Patricia A. Sirois, Toni Frederick, Rohan Hazra, Marilyn A. Huestis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: To investigate whether prenatal atazanavir (ATV) exposure, assessed by meconium antiretroviral (ARV) quantification, predicts early child language outcomes. Prenatal ATV exposure previously was associated with poorer language development in 1-year olds. Methods: Pregnant women with HIV and their uninfected infants enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities study. Meconium ARV concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Language development at 1 year was assessed with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Third Edition (Bayley-III). Late language emergence was defined as ≥1 of 4 CDI scores ≤10th percentile for age. Associations between fetal ATV exposure timing and duration, meconium ATV concentration, and language outcomes were evaluated, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Through 2013, meconium samples were available from 175 of 432 infants with prenatal ATV exposure. Valid Bayley-III (n 93) and CDI (n 106) assessments also were available. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher ATV meconium concentrations were associated with lower late language emergence risk (P 0.04) and cumulative ATV exposure duration also was associated with higher Bayley-III Language scores (P 0.03). Maternal ATV duration and initiation week correlated with ATV meconium concentrations (positively and negatively, respectively). Conclusions: Higher meconium ATV concentrations were protective against developmental language delays at 1 year, suggesting the importance of fetal ATV detoxification into meconium. This information supports ATV exposure safety for infant language development. ATV is a preferred ARV for pregnant women with HIV, suggesting the importance of ATV safety investigations. Additionally, further pursuit of the influences on language development in HIV-exposed uninfected infants is required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-186
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


  • HIV-exposed uninfected infants
  • antiretroviral
  • atazanavir
  • language
  • meconium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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