Measuring emotional labor among young workers: refinement of the Emotions at Work Scale.

Arnold B. de Castro, Barbara Curbow, Jacqueline Agnew, Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite, Sheila T. Fitzgerald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This analysis examines the applicability of the emotional labor scale from the Emotions at Work Scale (EWS) through the assessment of its psychometric properties in a sample of young workers. Factor analysis and test-retest reliability were conducted on a 13-item scale measuring emotional labor. The EWS 13-item emotional labor scale was refined to 9 items. Two subscales were delineated: 5 items measured surface acting and 4 items measured deep acting, each with a mean inter-item correlation of 0.33. Cronbach's alpha was .96 for the 9-item scale, and .71 and .67 for the surface acting and deep acting subscales, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.64 for surface acting and 0.51 for deep acting during a mean interval of 3 months. Emotional labor can be quantitatively measured among young workers using the derived 9-item scale, although additional studies further evaluating its use should be conducted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-209
Number of pages9
JournalAAOHN journal : official journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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