Mathematics learning disabilities in girls with fragile X or turner syndrome during late elementary school

Melissa M. Murphy, Michle M.M. Mazzocco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner syndrome, respectively). Differences between girls with fragile X and their comparison group emerged on untimed arithmetic calculations, mastery of counting skills, and arithmetic problem verification accuracy. Relative to girls in the comparison group, girls with Turner syndrome did not differ on untimed arithmetic calculations or problem verification accuracy, but they had limited mastery of counting skills and longer response times to complete the problem verification task. Girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome also differed from their respective comparison groups on math-related abilities, including visual-spatial, working memory, and reading skills, and the associations between math and those related skills. Together, these findings support the notion that difficulty with math and related skills among girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome continues into late elementary school and that the profile of math and related skill difficulty distinguishes the two syndrome groups from each other.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-46
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Learning Disabilities
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Dyscalculia
  • Elementary age
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Genetics
  • Mathematics
  • Mathematics learning disabilities
  • School-age children
  • Turner Syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • General Health Professions


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