Marijuana-laced brownies: Behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinalysis in humans following ingestion

Edward J. Cone, Rolley E. Johnson, Buddha D. Paul, Leroy D. Mell, John Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Five drug-free male subjects ingested marijuana-laced brownies in a double-blind crossover study designed to test for behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinary cannabinoid metabolites produced as a result of consumption of marijuana plant material cooked in foodstuff. On three separate occasions, each subject consumed two brownies which contained 1.6 g of marijuana plant material. Placebo marijuana plant material (0% THC) was mixed with marijuana plant material (2.8% THC) so that each subject ingested equivalent marijuana plant material of 0, 1, and 2 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% THC). Subjects scored significantly higher on behavioral measures after consumption of brownies containing THC than with placebo; however, the effects were slow to appear and variable. Peak effects occurred 2.5 to 3.5 h after dosing. Modest changes in pulse and blood pressure also were noted. Urinalyses by EMIT® d.a.u. assay and Abuscreen® RIA for cannabinoids and GC/MS assay for THCCOOH indicated that substantial amounts of marijuana-related metabolites were excreted over a period of 3 to 14 days. No positives were produced as a result of ingestion of placebo brownies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-175
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of analytical toxicology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Chemical Health and Safety


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