Purpose: Thirty to 50% of HIV patients develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) despite combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1-infected macrophages release viral and cellular proteins that induce neuronal degeneration and death. We hypothesize that changes in the macrophage secretome of HIV-1 seropositive patients with HAND may dissect proteins related to neurotoxicity. Experimental design: Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were isolated from the peripheral blood of 12 HIV+ and four HIV- women characterized for neurocognitive function. Serum-free MDM supernatants were collected for protein isolation and quantification with iTRAQ® labeling. Protein identification was performed using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer and validated in MDM supernatants and in plasma using ELISA. Results: Three proteins were different between normal cognition (NC) and asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANI), six between NC and HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and six between NC and HAD. Among these, S100A9 was decreased in plasma from patients with ANI, and metalloproteinase 9 was decreased in the plasma of all HIV+ patients regardless of cognitive status, and was significantly reduced in supernatant of MDM isolated from patients with ANI. Conclusions and clinical relevance: S100A9 and metalloproteinase 9 have been associated with inflammation and cognitive impairment, and therefore represent potential targets for HAND treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry