Machine intelligence in non-invasive endocrine cancer diagnostics

Nicole M. Thomasian, Ihab R. Kamel, Harrison X. Bai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Artificial intelligence (AI) has illuminated a clear path towards an evolving health-care system replete with enhanced precision and computing capabilities. Medical imaging analysis can be strengthened by machine learning as the multidimensional data generated by imaging naturally lends itself to hierarchical classification. In this Review, we describe the role of machine intelligence in image-based endocrine cancer diagnostics. We first provide a brief overview of AI and consider its intuitive incorporation into the clinical workflow. We then discuss how AI can be applied for the characterization of adrenal, pancreatic, pituitary and thyroid masses in order to support clinicians in their diagnostic interpretations. This Review also puts forth a number of key evaluation criteria for machine learning in medicine that physicians can use in their appraisals of these algorithms. We identify mitigation strategies to address ongoing challenges around data availability and model interpretability in the context of endocrine cancer diagnosis. Finally, we delve into frontiers in systems integration for AI, discussing automated pipelines and evolving computing platforms that leverage distributed, decentralized and quantum techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-95
Number of pages15
JournalNature Reviews Endocrinology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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