Low latency temporal filter design for real-time MRI using UNFOLD

Peter Kellman, Jonathan M. Sorger, Frederick H. Epstein, Elliot R. McVeigh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


To improve real-time control of interventional procedures such as guidance of catheters, monitoring of ablation therapy, or control of dosage during drug delivery, the image acquisition and reconstruction must be high speed and have low latency (small time delay) in processing. A number of different methods have been demonstrated which increase the speed of MR acquisition by decreasing the number of sequential phase-encodes. A design and implementation of the UNFOLD method which achieves the desired low latency with a recursive temporal filter is presented. The recursive filter design is characterized for this application and compared with more commonly used moving average filters. Experimental results demonstrate low-latency UNFOLD for two applications: 1) high-speed, real-time imaging of the heart to be used in conjunction with cardiac interventional procedures; and 2) the injection of drugs into muscle tissue with contrast enhancement, i.e., monitoring needle insertion and injection of a drug with contrast enhancement properties. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated by injecting a contrast agent. In both applications the UNFOLD technique was used to double the frame rate. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)933-939
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac imaging
  • Interventional MR
  • Rapid imaging
  • Real-time imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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