Low haemoglobin levels, its determinants and associated features among pregnant women in Islamabad and surrounding region

Rukhsana Ayub, Nabia Tariq, Malik Muhammad Adil, Mobeen Iqbal, Tara Jaferry, Shan Rasul Rais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective: To estimate the haemoglobin levels in pregnant women and to determine the socio-demographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a total of 200 patients visiting prenatal clinic of Shifa International Hospital/Shifa Foundation Community Health Centres, Islamabad over the period of six months, both booked and non-booked were included. A detailed questionnaire was filled and complete blood count, peripheral smear and absolute values were performed in all cases. Haemoglobin levels (Hb) of women below 10.5g/dl were considered to be low (anaemia) and were further subjected to urine/stool routine examination. Cases of thalasaemia trait were excluded from the study. All the data was entered in SPSS v 10.0. Descriptive analysis was done obtaining frequencies for socio-demographic factors. Mean haemoglobin levels along with standard deviation and confidence interval were reported. Frequency of helminthic infestation of suspected cases was also reported. Analysis included any significant differences in mean haemoglobin levels of booked versus non-booked cases. Results: Mean haemoglobin of our study population was 11.0±1.64 g/dl. Frequency of decreased haemoglobin was found to be in 42.5%. Mean haemoglobin of patients having income less than Rs5000 was 10.5±1.24 g/dl and those with income more than Rs5000/month had a mean Haemoglobin of 11.5±1.44g/dl. Mean haemoglobin of patients with history with or without pica eating was 10.1±1.31g/dl and 11.9±1.56g/dl respectively. Conclusion: Low haemoglobin was commonly seen in our population among pregnant women irrespective of their socioeconomic status. The severity of anaemia was significantly associated with lower socioeconomic status and odd eating habits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-89
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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