Low-cost frequency-domain photon migration instrument for tissue spectroscopy, oximetry, and imaging

Yunsong Yang, Hanli Liu, Xingde Li, Britton Chance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


We described a low-cost, frequency-domain photon migration spectroscopy instrument by using in-phase and quadrature demodulation technique in a 140-MHz homodyne system. A time constant of 1 ms was obtained. A frequency-division multiplexing technique was used for multiposition or multiwavelength applications, such as for tissue oximetry. By conducting several experiments on tissue/blood models, we show that the optical properties of tissue can be determined with this system by either using multiple source-detector separations at accuracy better than 8% or using single source-detector separation. The accuracy with the latter method can be improved to be 10% or better by choosing a proper calibration sample. A frequency-sweep system (30 to 700 MHz) was also implemented; the phase and amplitude measured on a tissue-like solution at 780 nm agreed to their theoretical values within 5% and 10% accuracy, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1562-1569
Number of pages8
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Absorption and scattering coefficients
  • Frequency-division multiplex
  • Frequency-domain spectroscopy
  • In-phase and quadrature demodulation
  • Noninvasive tissue oximetry
  • Photon migration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Engineering


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