Long-Term Survival and Causes of Death in Children with Trisomy 21 After Congenital Heart Surgery

Jennifer K. Peterson, Lazaros K. Kochilas, Jessica Knight, Courtney McCracken, Amanda S. Thomas, James H. Moller, Shaun P. Setty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To evaluate long-term transplant-free survival and causes of death in the trisomy 21 (T21) population after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) in comparison with patients who are euploidic. Study design: This is a retrospective cohort study from the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium, enriched with prospectively collected data from the National Death Index and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network for patients with sufficient direct identifiers. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for mortality between patients with T21 and 1:1 matched patients with comparable CHD who are euploidic. Results: A long-term survival analysis was completed for 3376 patients with T21 (75 155 person-years) who met inclusion criteria. The 30-year survival rate for patients with T21 ranged from 92.1% for ventricular septal defect to 65.3% for complex common atrioventricular canal. Of these, 2185 patients with T21 were successfully matched with a patient who was euploidic. After a median follow-up of 22.86 years (IQR, 19.45-27.14 years), 213 deaths occurred in the T21 group (9.7%) compared with 123 (5.6%) in the euploidic comparators. After adjustment for age, sex, era, CHD complexity, and initial palliation, the hazard ratio of CHD-related mortality was 1.34 times higher in patients with T21 (95% CI, 0.92-1.97; P = .127). Conclusions: CHD-related mortality for patients with T21 after cardiac surgical intervention is comparable with euploidic comparators. Children with T21 require lifelong surveillance for co-occurring conditions associated with their chromosomal abnormality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)246-253.e3
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • congenital heart surgery
  • genetics
  • outcomes
  • statistics (survival analysis)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-Term Survival and Causes of Death in Children with Trisomy 21 After Congenital Heart Surgery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this