Long-acting HIV drugs for treatment and prevention

Roy M. Gulick, Charles Flexner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Antiretroviral drugs have revolutionized the treatment and prevention of HIV infection; however, adherence is critical for sustained efficacy. Current HIV treatment consists of three-drug regimens, and current HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) consists of a two-drug regimen; both generally require adherence to once-daily dosing. Long-acting formulations are useful in the treatment and prevention of other conditions (e.g., contraceptives, antipsychotics) and help promote adherence. Newer long-acting formulations of approved and investigational antiretroviral drugs in existing and newer mechanistic classes are under study for HIV treatment and prevention, including some phase III trials. Although long-acting antiretroviral drugs hold promise, some clinical challenges exist, including managing side effects, drug-drug interactions, pregnancy, and long-lasting drug concentrations that could lead to the development of drug resistance. This review aims to summarize currently available information on long-acting antiretroviral drugs for HIV treatment and prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-150
Number of pages14
JournalAnnual review of medicine
StatePublished - Jan 27 2019


  • HIV
  • antiretroviral drugs
  • extended-release
  • implants
  • long-acting
  • monoclonal antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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