Linear response equilibrium

Kai W. Eberhardt, Michael Schär, Christoph Barmet, Jeffrey Tsao, Peter Boesiger, Sebastian Kozerke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A new periodic pulse sequence employing weak excitation is presented. This type of sequence drives the system into a steady-state with periodic time evolution from which the data can be reconstructed to a spectrum. It is demonstrated that the frequency response of such a sequence can be analyzed using perturbation methods and linear system analysis. A mathematical framework is proposed allowing the frequency response to be tailored by weighting a periodic flip function. The weak excitation level used implies very low specific absorption rates while generating a highly frequency selective signal in the order of 1/T2 with signal strengths comparable to those obtainable with conventional large flip angle balanced steady-state free precession techniques. The concept is illustrated with phantom experiments and in vivo feasibility of water fat separation is shown on human knee images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)142-154
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Frequency-selective imaging
  • Rapid imaging
  • Small flip angle
  • Specific absorption rate
  • Steady-state free precession

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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