Le fort-based maxillofacial transplantation: Current state of the art and a refined technique using orthognathic applications

Chad R. Gordon, Srinivas M. Susarla, Zachary S. Peacock, Leonard B. Kaban, Michael J. Yaremchuk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Following encouraging results from the first 6 maxillofacial allotransplants, there has been a dramatic rise in interest worldwide. Numerous groups are now devoting resources to increase the frequency of these complex procedures, and with this, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon should become familiar with the emerging state of the art. This article reviews the evolution of Le Fort-based cadaveric studies pertaining to maxillofacial allotransplantation, briefly describes the clinical reports through 2010, and introduces a refined technique applying orthognathic applications. Preliminary studies over the last 5 years have highlighted the challenges associated with transplanting skeletal components, and clinical results presented thus far have been extremely promising. However, a notable area for improvement is suboptimal facial-skeletal harmony and profile in the context of sagittal skeletal projection and maxillomandibular relation. To our knowledge, orthognathic planning as applied to osteocutaneous face transplantation has not been described. Many recipients seen thus far demonstrate some degree of malocclusion and suboptimal harmony, as expected, given the donor-to-recipient skeletal/jaw discrepancies. Given that the goal is to improve function as well as form, the importance of orthognathic planning cannot be overstated with respect to optimizing harmony, profile, and occlusion. Preoperative planning, including generation of donor/recipient dental cast models, as described herein for the first time, is essential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)81-87
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012


  • Craniomaxillofacial surgery
  • Face transplant
  • Facial composite tissue allograft
  • Le Fort osteotomy
  • Maxillofacial allotransplant
  • Orthognathic
  • Osteocutaneous

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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