Lateral and Longitudinal Magnification in Direct and Indirect Ophthalmoscopy

Jay M. Enoch, Morton F. Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Object-image relationships in a reduced schematic eye have been considered for both direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Certain distorting effects of lateral and longitudinal magnification in ophthalmoscopy have been defined and compared. The model described allows first order evaluation of imagery for both axial and oblique viewing of the patient's retina. Techniques have been described which allow partial evaluation of the factors developed in the text by (1) apparent projection of a fixed reference after-image located on the observer's retina, and by (2) selectively bleaching known areas on the patient's retina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)536-547
Number of pages12
JournalArchives of ophthalmology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1971
Externally publishedYes


  • Direct ophthalmoscopy
  • after image (projection)
  • indirect ophthalmoscopy
  • lateral magnification
  • longitudinal magnification
  • ocular foreign body localization
  • optogram (rhodopsin)
  • paraxial optics of the eye
  • retinal detachment localization
  • schematic eye—reduced
  • sickle cell retinopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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