Knowledge, attitudes, and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination in the general population and the effect of different framing messages for a brief video on intentions to get vaccinated among unvaccinated individuals in the United States during July 2021

Alexander J. Zapf, Holly B. Schuh, Matthew Z. Dudley, Rajiv N. Rimal, Steven A. Harvey, Jana Shaw, Kristian Balgobin, Daniel A. Salmon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To identify knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KABs) associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions and assess the impact of vaccine-promoting messages on vaccination intentions. Methods: Our nationally representative survey measured KABs of COVID-19 vaccination and incorporated a randomized experiment to assess the impact of different framing messages for a video encouraging vaccination intentions among unvaccinated adults in the US. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the relationships of KABs, trust in public health authorities (PHAs), and vaccine confidence with vaccination intentions. Difference-in-difference estimation was conducted to assess the impact of framing messages for a video on unvaccinated individuals’ vaccination intentions. Results: We observed that people with increasingly favorable vaccine KABs, trust in PHAs, and vaccine confidence were more likely to be vaccinated or intend to get vaccinated against COVID-19. Difference-in-difference estimates indicated a positive impact of exposure to the video on vaccination intentions while framing messages in some cases appeared to lower vaccination intentions. Associations between the video and vaccination intentions were more pronounced among Black/African American and Hispanic/Latinx populations and Democrats; however, associations did not vary by trust in PHAs or vaccine confidence. Conclusion: Videos that encourage people to get vaccinated may provide an efficient approach to nudge vaccine-hesitant individuals towards getting vaccinated. However, framing messages may negatively impact vaccination intentions and need to be developed carefully. Practice implications: This study provides solid experimental evidence for the importance of tailoring message framing to the characteristics and experience of the audience, while cautioning potential negative impacts of framing that does not match its intended audience. Our findings are applicable to health communication strategies on the population level, such as mass media campaigns, and the use of framing for messages to encourage vaccination but may also be informative for healthcare professionals consulting hesitant individuals about COVID-19 vaccinations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108258
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Volume124
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2024

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Framing
  • Health communication
  • Nudge
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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