Kidney stone composition in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abdulrazack Amir, Brian R. Matlaga, Justin Ziemba, Salwa Sheikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: Urolithiasis is a globally-distributed disease; however, its prevalence varies across countries and regions. Countries in the Middle East have been reported to have particularly high nephrolithiasis prevalence rates. To date, however, we have an incomplete understanding of the composition of stones seen in this region. Therefore, we performed a study to characterize stone composition over a 14-year period in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all adult patients who had the composition of their upper urinary tract calculi analyzed at Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare (JHAH) between 1999 and 2013 was performed. Patient demographics and pathology results were obtained from the electronic medical record. Results: A total of 1,747 stones were analyzed in the study period. The results are presented in the Table. Male patients predominated (79%). For both men and women, the majority of stones were calcium oxalate: 85.2% male, 85.9% female. Uric acid stones were the next most common: 10.1% male; 9.0% female. Overall, there were no significant differences between gender with regards to the distribution of stone types. Conclusion: This study represents one of the largest characterizations of stone composition in the Middle East. There remains a significant gender disparity in stone prevalence in the Eastern Province of KSA, with males affected to a significantly greater extent. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of stone, and this is true for both men and women. Future investigations of dietary and environmental factors can build on these initial epidemiologic findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-348
Number of pages4
JournalClinical Nephrology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2018


  • Calcium oxalate
  • Epidemiology
  • Middle East
  • Nephrolithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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