Background: We previously reported that children undergoing cardiac surgery are at high risk for long-term chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension, although postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not a risk factor for worse long-term kidney outcomes. We report here our evaluation of renal injury biomarkers 5 years after cardiac surgery to determine whether they are associated with postoperative AKI or long-term CKD and hypertension. Methods: Children aged 1 month to 18 years old undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were recruited to this prospective cohort study. At 5 years after cardiac surgery, we measured urine interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, YKL-40, and neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin (NGAL). Biomarker levels were compared between patients with AKI and those without. We also performed a cross-sectional analysis of the association between these biomarkers with CKD and hypertension. Results: Of the 305 subjects who survived hospitalization, four (1.3%) died after discharge, and 110 (36%) participated in the 5-year follow-up. Of these 110 patients, 49 (45%) had AKI. Patients with versus those without postoperative AKI did not have significantly different biomarker concentrations at 5 years after cardiac surgery. None of the biomarker concentrations were associated with CKD or hypertension at 5 years of follow-up, although CKD and hypertension were associated with a higher proportion of participants with abnormal NGAL levels. Conclusions: Postoperative pediatric AKI is not associated with urinary kidney injury biomarkers 5 years after surgery. This may represent a lack of chronic renal injury after AKI, imprecise estimation of the glomerular filtration rate, the need for longer follow-up to detect chronic renal damage, or that our studied biomarkers are inadequate for evaluating subclinical chronic renal injury.
- Acute kidney injury
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Long-term outcomes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health