Invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged younger than 5 years in India: a surveillance study

Anand Manoharan, Vikas Manchanda, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sanjay Lalwani, Meera Modak, Sushama Bai, Ajith Vijayan, Anita Shet, Savitha Nagaraj, Sunil Karande, Gita Nataraj, Vijay N. Yewale, Shrikrishna A. Joshi, Ranganathan N. Iyer, Mathuram Santosham, Geoffrey David Kahn, Maria Deloria Knoll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Background Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. Methods In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India. Eligibility criteria were fever higher than 38°C without localising symptoms, clinical presentation of suspected meningitis or pneumonia, and evidence of radiographic pneumonia. We cultured blood and other normally sterile body fluids, reconfirmed and serotyped pneumococcal isolates, and established antimicrobial susceptibility using standard study protocols. Findings Between Jan 1, 2011, and June 30, 2015, we enrolled 4377 patients. Among 361 (8%) patients with culture-proven pneumococcal disease, all clinical data were known for 226 (63%); among these patients, 132 (58%) presented with pneumonia, 78 (35%) presented with meningitis, and 16 (7%) had other clinical conditions. 131 (3%) died overall and 29 (8%) patients with invasive pneumococcal disease died. Serotypes 14 (52 [14%] of 361), 1 (49 [14%]), 5 (37 [10%]), and 19F (33 [9%]) were the most common. Penicillin non-susceptibility occurred in isolates from 29 (8%) patients, co-trimoxazole resistance occurred in 239 (66%), erythromycin resistance occurred in 132 (37%), and chloramphenicol resistance occurred in 33 (9%). We found multidrug resistance in 33 (9%) of 361 patients. Interpretation The proportion of positive blood cultures, number of isolates, geographical representation, and data generated over the 4·5 years of the study are representative of data for most of India. Continued surveillance is warranted as the decision to introduce protein conjugated vaccine in India is made. Funding GlaxoSmithKline India.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-312
Number of pages8
JournalThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases


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