Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


The modern human body is the product of a long evolutionary history stretching back millions of years. Early 'anatomically modern humans' (EAM), that is, Homo sapiens, appeared in the late Middle Pleistocene and were the only form to survive until the end of the Pleistocene. This chapter discusses on general pan-European variation in body size and shape, long-bone robusticity, sexual dimorphism in body size/shape and robusticity, and upper-limb bone bilateral asymmetry. It considers changes in body size/shape and bone structural properties within some specific regions, including more local archeological and historical context. The chapter includes some anthropometric data for recent living populations from the regions, to allow further assessment of very recent secular changes in body size. Both body size and shape must be considered when assessing long-bone strength, because each influences the mechanical loadings on the limbs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationSkeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans
Subtitle of host publicationUpper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9781118628430
ISBN (Print)9781118627969
StatePublished - Dec 19 2017


  • Anthropometric data
  • European populations
  • Human body shape
  • Long-bone robusticity
  • Mechanical loadings
  • Sexual dimorphism
  • Skeletal material
  • Upper-limb bone bilateral asymmetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Introduction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this