Intraoperative ketorolac and eye pain after vitreoretinal surgery: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study

Sharon Fekrat, Marta J. Marsh, Sarah H. Elsing, Sharath C. Raja, Eugene De Juan, Peter A. Campochiaro, Julia A. Haller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Purpose: To compare the efficacy of one intraoperative dose of intravenous ketorolac tromethamine to saline placebo in controlling postoperative eye pain, nausea, and sedation following vitreoretinal surgery. Study Design: Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods: One hundred fourteen vitreoretinal surgical patients were randomized over a 7-month period to a single intraoperative intravenous dose of ketorolac tromethamine or placebo. All patients underwent surgery with intravenous sedation and retrobulbar anesthetic injection and had access to a standard postoperative analgesic regimen. After 2 and 5 hours, eye pain, nausea, and sedation levels were recorded using a standard visual analog scale. Analgesic requirements were tabulated. Results: Patients given ketorolac were significantly less likely to have postoperative eye pain than were placebo-treated patients (P = 0.0043). Fewer ketorolac patients required postoperative analgesia than placebo patients did (P < 0.0001). Four ketorolac patients (7%) required a narcotic compared to 11 placebo patients (20%) (P < 0.0001). Fewer ketorolac patients experienced nausea and sedation than placebo patients did, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Ketorolac tromethamine is an effective nonnarcotic choice for postoperative pain control following vitreoretinal surgery. Pain control is particularly important in this group of patients, whose compliance with postoperative procedures and positioning may significantly affect surgical outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-13
Number of pages6
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003


  • Eye pain
  • Ketorolac tromethamine
  • Postoperative
  • Prospective Toradol
  • Randomized trial
  • Vitreoretinal surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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