International harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria (INHAND) progress to date and future plans

Charlotte M. Keenan, Julia F. Baker, Alys E. Bradley, Dawn G. Goodman, Takanori Harada, Ronald Herbert, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Rupert Kellner, Beth Mahler, Emily Meseck, Thomas Nolte, Susanne Rittinghausen, John Vahle, Katsuhiko Yoshizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Recently, large-scale gene expression profiling is often performed using RNA extracted from unfixed frozen or formalinfixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. However, both types of samples have drawbacks in terms of the morphological preservation and RNA quality. In the present study, we investigated 30 human prostate tissues using the PFA-AMeX method (fixation using paraformaldehyde (PFA) followed by embedding in paraffin by AMeX) with a DNA microarray combined with laser-capture microdissection. Morphologically, in contrast to the case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, loss of basal cells in prostate adenocarcinomas was as obvious in PFA-AMeX samples as in FFPE samples. As for quality, the loss of rRNA peaks 18S and 28S on the capillary electropherograms from both FFPE and PFA-AMeX samples showed that the RNA was degraded equally during processing. However, qRT-PCR with 3’ and 5’ primer sets designed against human beta-actin revealed that, although RNA degradation occurred in both methods, it occurred more mildly in the PFA-AMeX samples. In conclusion, the PFA-AMeX method is good with respect to morphology and RNA quality, which makes it a promising tool for DNA microarrays combined with laser-capture microdissection, and if the appropriate RNA quality criteria are used, the capture of credible GeneChip data is well over 80% efficient, at least in human prostate specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-53
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Toxicologic Pathology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015


  • Regulatory science
  • Rodent
  • Terminology
  • Toxicologic pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Toxicology


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