Injection drug use (IDU) is an important vector of HIV infection in the United States. Many patients with HIV infection have comorbid substance use disorders. Integrated treatment for HIV and substance use disorders has been shown to improve HIV and other health outcomes, but significant barriers to integrated treatment exist. For individuals who are dependent on injection opioid drugs, agonist therapies of methadone or buprenorphine maintenance are available as part of a treatment program. Patients who are infected with HIV and require antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at risk for drug-drug interaction between ART and methadone or buprenorphine. We present a programmatic approach to the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorders for HIV care providers, as well as a summary of the available knowledge of interactions of methadone and buprenorphine with ART, along with the level of evidence for each actual or potential interaction. Based on the available information of practice and the level of clinical significance of drug-drug interactions, we conclude that buprenorphine-based maintenance treatment for opioid dependent patients is the preferred maintenance therapy for integrated treatment systems.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases