Integrated modulation intensity distribution as a practical tool for condition monitoring

Jacek Urbanek, Tomasz Barszcz, Jerome Antoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Modulations present in vibration signals generated by rotating machinery might carry a lot of useful information about objects' technical condition. It has been proven that both gearboxes and rolling element bearing (REB) faults manifest themselves as modulations. The paper describes a technique for detection of modulations in vibroacoustic signals, called modulation intensity distribution (MID), which is a function that combines multiple spectral correlation densities in one way or another, depending on the application. Additionally, the paper describes a functional obtained by integrating an MID (denoted by IMID) that has the advantage of being a function of only one frequency variable instead of two. The paper investigates the utility of the MID as an indicator for detection of the presence of rolling element bearing faults in high noise environments. For the purpose of testing, a wind turbine that suffered both advanced gearbox fault and early stage of bearing fault was chosen. Additionally, the paper undertakes the problem of application of the proposed tool in an industrial condition-monitoring system. In order to show the behavior of cyclic components generated by the turbine under study over a long period of time, the set of MIDs integrated over full range of potential carrier signals was presented as a cascade plot.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-194
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Acoustics
StatePublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cyclostationarity
  • MID
  • Modulation intensity distribution
  • Modulations
  • Rolling elements bearings
  • Spectral correlation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


Dive into the research topics of 'Integrated modulation intensity distribution as a practical tool for condition monitoring'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this