Initial bladder closure of the cloacal exstrophy complex: Outcome related risk factors and keys to success

Bhavik B. Shah, Heather Di Carlo, Seth D. Goldstein, Phillip M. Pierorazio, Brian M. Inouye, Eric Z. Massanyi, Adam Kern, June Koshy, Paul Sponseller, John P. Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Purpose This study examines a large single-institution experience with cloacal exstrophy patients, analyzing patient demographics and surgical strategies predictive of bladder closure outcomes. Methods One hundred patients with cloacal exstrophy were identified. Complete closure history including demographics, operative history, and outcomes was available on 60 patients. Twenty-six patients with a history of failed initial bladder closure were compared to 34 with a history of successful initial bladder closure. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare the two groups. Results Median follow up time after initial closure was 9 years (range: 13 months-29 years). A 1 cm increase in pre-closure diastasis resulted in a 2.64 increase in the odds of initial closure failure (p = 0.004). Protective strategies against failure included delaying closure (per month) (OR = 0.894, p = 0.009), employing pelvic osteotomies (OR = 0.095, p < 0.001), and applying external fixation (OR = 0.024; p = 0.001). Among patients who underwent osteotomy (31% of patients in the failed group, 82% in the successful group), a longer delay between osteotomy and closure (OR = 0.033; p = 0.005) was also protective against failure. Conclusion Patients with a large diastasis are more likely to fail initial closure. Delaying initial closure for at least 3 months, performing pelvic osteotomy, and using an external fixation device post-operatively are strategies that imrove closure success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1036-1040
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Bladder closure
  • Cloacal exstrophy
  • Exstrophy
  • Failure
  • Osteotomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Initial bladder closure of the cloacal exstrophy complex: Outcome related risk factors and keys to success'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this