Cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses were evaluated in humans immunized with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) envelope glycoprotein gp160. Some vaccinees had gpl60-specific CTLs that were shown by cloning to be CD4+. Although induced by exogenous antigen, most gpl60-specific CTL clones also recognized gp160 synthesized endogenously in target cells. These clones lysed autologous CD4+ T lymphoblasts infected with HIV. Of particular interest were certain vaccine-induced clones that lysed HIV-infected cells, recognized gpl60 from diverse HIV isolates, and did not participate in "innocent bystander" killing of noninfected CD4+ T cells that had bound gpl20.
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