Individualized feedback to change multiple gait deficits in chronic stroke

Kevin A. Day, Kendra M. Cherry-Allen, Amy J. Bastian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Walking deficits in people post-stroke are often multiple and idiosyncratic in nature. Limited patient and therapist resources necessitate prioritization of deficits such that some may be left unaddressed. More efficient delivery of therapy may alleviate this challenge. Here, we look to determine the utility of a novel principal component-based visual feedback system that targets multiple, patient-specific features of gait in people post-stroke. Methods: Ten individuals with stroke received two sessions of visual feedback to attain a walking goal. This goal consisted of bilateral knee and hip joint angles of a typical 'healthy' walking pattern. The feedback system uses principal component analysis (PCA) to algorithmically weight each of the input features so that participants received one stream of performance feedback. In the first session, participants had to explore different patterns to achieve the goal, and in the second session they were informed of the goal walking pattern. Ten healthy, age-matched individuals received the same paradigm, but with a hemiparetic goal (i.e.To produce the pattern of an exemplar stroke participant). This was to distinguish the extent to which performance limitations in stroke were due neurological injury or the PCA based visual feedback itself. Results: Principal component-based visual feedback can differentially bias multiple features of walking toward a prescribed goal. On average, individuals with stroke typically improved performance via increased paretic knee and hip flexion, and did not perform better with explicit instruction. In contrast, healthy people performed better (i.e. could produce the desired exemplar stroke pattern) in both sessions, and were best with explicit instruction. Importantly, the feedback for stroke participants accommodated a heterogeneous set of walking deficits by individually weighting each feature based on baseline walking. Conclusions: People with and without stroke are able to use this novel visual feedback to train multiple, specific features of gait. Important for stroke, the PCA feedback allowed for targeting of patient-specific deficits. This feedback is flexible to any feature of walking in any plane of movement, thus providing a potential tool for therapists to simultaneously target multiple aberrant features of gait.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number158
JournalJournal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 23 2019


  • Biofeedback
  • Gait rehabilitation
  • PCA
  • Real-Time
  • Stroke
  • Visual feedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Health Informatics


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