Indirect ophthalmoscopes: Evaluation for potential hazard

Sharon A. Miller, Robert H. James, David H. Sliney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The optical radiation emitted from eight indirect ophthalmoscopes was measured. The levels were compared with the threshold limit values (TLVs) published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Many tested instruments were found to emit unnecessarily high levels of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in addition to visible light. The levels of optical radiation emitted from most of the ophthalmoscopes were below the applicable TLVs. Nevertheless, suitable blocking filters can reduce the emission of ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Use of the ophthalmoscopes at the lowest possible power setting and the shortest possible exposure time would further minimize patient exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1631-1637
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Hazard analysis
  • Indirect ophthalmoscope
  • Optical radiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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