Increased awareness enhances physician recognition of the role of smoking in chronic pancreatitis

Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Dhiraj Yadav, Judah N. Abberbock, Samer Alkaade, Stephen T. Amann, Michelle A. Anderson, Peter A. Banks, Randall E. Brand, Darwin Conwell, Gregory A. Cote, Christopher E. Forsmark, Timothy B. Gardner, Andres Gelrud, Nalini Guda, Michele D. Lewis, Joseph Romagnuolo, Bimaljit S. Sandhu, Stuart Sherman, Vikesh K. Singh, Adam SlivkaGong Tang, David C. Whitcomb, C. Mel Wilcox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: We have previously reported that physicians under-recognize smoking as a chronic pancreatitis (CP) risk factor. We hypothesized that availability of empiric data will influence physician recognition of this relationship. Methods: We analyzed data from 508 CP patients prospectively enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2 Continuation and Validation (NAPS2-CV) or NAPS2-Ancillary (AS) studies (2008–2014) from 26 US centers who self-reported ever-smoking. Information on smoking status, physician-defined etiology and identification of smoking as a CP risk factor was obtained from structured patient and physician questionnaires. We compared how often physician identified smoking as a CP risk factor in NAPS2-CV/NAPS2-AS studies with NAPS2-original study (2000–2006). Results: Enrolling physician identified smoking as a risk factor in significantly (all p < 0.001) greater proportion of patients in NAPS2-CV/AS studies when compared with NAPS2-original study among ever (80.7 vs. 45.3%), current (91.3 vs. 53%), past (60.3 vs. 30.2%) smokers, in those who smoked ≤1 pack/day (79.3 vs. 39.5%) or ≥1 packs/day (83 vs. 49.8%). In multivariable analyses, the enrolling physician was 3.32–8.49 times more likely to cite smoking as a CP risk factor in the NAPS2-CV/NAPS2-AS studies based on smoking status and amount after controlling for age, sex, race and alcohol etiology. The effect was independent of enrolling site in a sub-analysis limited to sites participating in both phases of enrollment. Conclusions: Availability of empiric data likely enhanced physician recognition of the association between smoking and CP. Wide-spread dissemination of this information could potentially curtail smoking rates in subjects with and those at risk of CP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)500-506
Number of pages7
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2019


  • Etiology
  • Pancreatitis
  • Risk factor
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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