Incompatible live-donor kidney transplantation in the United States: Results of a national survey

Jacqueline M.Garonzik Wang, Robert A. Montgomery, Lauren M. Kucirka, Jonathan C. Berger, Daniel S. Warren, Dorry L. Segev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Background and objectives Use of incompatible kidney transplantation (IKT) is growing as a response to the organ shortage and the increase in sensitization among candidates. However, recent regulatory mandates possibly threaten IKT, and the potential effect of these mandates cannot be estimated because dissemination of this modality remains unknown. The goal of this study was to better understand practice patterns of IKT in the United States. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Directors from all 187 unique active adult kidney transplant programs were queried about transplantation across the following antibody barriers: positive Luminex, negative flow crossmatch (PLNF); positive flow, negative cytotoxic crossmatch (PFNC); positive cytotoxic crossmatch (PCC); and ABO incompatible (ABOi). Results Responses from 125 centers represented 84% of the live-donor transplant volume in the United States. Barriers of PLNF, PFNC, PCC, and ABOi are being crossed in 70%, 51%, 18%, and 24%, respectively, of transplant centers that responded. Desensitization was performed in 58% of PLNF, 76% of PFNC, 100% of PCC, and 80% of ABOi using plasmapheresis and low-dose intravenous Ig (IVIg) in 71% to 83% and high-dose IVIg in 29% to 46%. Conclusions A higher proportion of centers perform IKT than might be inferred from the literature. The rapid dissemination of these protocols despite adequate evidence of a clear advantage of IKT transplants argues for the creation of a national registry and randomized studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2041-2046
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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