Incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor: Experience in Saudi Arabia

Saba Al-Rashaed, Sulaiman M. Alsulaiman, Abdulaziz Adel Alrushood, Jluwi Almasaud, J. Fernando Arevalo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: To report the incidence of endophthalmitis, the clinical and microbiological aspects, after intravitreal (IVT) injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Methods: A chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with endophthalmitis after receiving IVT injections of bevacizumab (Avastin) and ranibizumab (Lucentis) presenting to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) from May 2006 to December 2012. Endophthalmitis was diagnosed clinically as an intraocular infection with vitreous involvement that required treatment with IVT antibiotics or had undergone pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) to remove the suspected microorganism. Main outcome measures were the incidence of endophthalmitis and the clinical and microbiological features. Results: Seven cases of endophthalmitis were identified, there was 1 (0.004%) case of endophthalmitis of 22674 IVT injections performed at KKESH. All cases were after IVT bevacizumab. Three (42.85%) cases were culture-positive and caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The initial management was vitreous tap and IVT injection of antibiotics followed by PPV in 6 (85.7%) cases. One (14.3%) case underwent evisceration. Visual acuity improved at last visit in only 2 (28.6%) cases. The rate of endophthalmitis was 0.0004% for bevacizumab. Conclusions: The rate of endophthalmitis after IVT bevacizumab and ranibizumab was very low. We recommend following a standardized injection protocol, adherence to sterile techniques, and proper patient follow.up are determinant factors for low incidence rates. In addition, endophthalmitis after IVT bevacizumab and ranibizumab have poor visual outcomes despite prompt treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-63
Number of pages4
JournalMiddle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Bevacizumab
  • Endophthalmitis
  • Gulf States
  • Intravitreal Injection
  • Ranibizumab
  • Saudi Arabia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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