Incidence of and risk factors for bacteraemia in HIV-infected adults in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

B. R. Yehia, J. A. Fleishman, L. Wilson, P. L. Hicks, T. T. Gborkorquellie, K. A. Gebo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk for bacteraemia compared with HIV-negative patients. Few data exist on the incidence of and risk factors for bacteraemia across time in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: We assessed the incidence of bacteraemia among patients followed between 2000 and 2008 at 10 HIV Research Network sites. This large multisite, multistate clinical cohort study collected demographic, clinical and therapeutic data longitudinally. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-9 codes were examined to identify all cases of in-patient bacteraemia. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for bacteraemia and trends over time in the odds of bacteraemia. Results: A total of 39318 patients were followed for 146289 person-years (PY). During the study period, there were 2025 episodes of bacteraemia (incidence 13.8 events/1000 PY). The most common bacteraemia diagnosis was 'bacteraemia, not otherwise specified (NOS)' (51%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16%) and Streptococcus species (6.5%). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of bacteraemia was found to have increased in 2005-2008, compared with 2000. Other factors associated with higher odds of bacteraemia included a history of injection drug use (IDU), age ≥50 years, Black race and greater immunosuppression. Conclusions: The likelihood of bacteraemia has risen slightly in recent years. Patients who are Black or have a history of IDU are at higher risk. Further research is needed to identify reasons for this increase and to evaluate programmes designed to reduce the bacteraemia risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)535-543
Number of pages9
JournalHIV Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • Bacteraemia
  • HIV
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • Staphylococcus aureus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Incidence of and risk factors for bacteraemia in HIV-infected adults in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this