In vivo proton electron double resonance imaging of mice with fast spin echo pulse sequence

Ziqi Sun, Haihong Li, Sergey Petryakov, Alex Samouilov, Jay L. Zweier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop and evaluate a two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence for enhancing temporal resolution and reducing tissue heating for in vivo proton electron double resonance imaging (PEDRI) of mice. Materials and Methods: A four-compartment phantom containing 2 mM TEMPONE was imaged at 20.1 mT using 2D FSE-PEDRI and regular gradient echo (GRE)-PEDRI pulse sequences. Control mice were infused with TEMPONE over ∼1 min followed by time-course imaging using the 2D FSE-PEDRI sequence at intervals of 10-30 s between image acquisitions. The average signal intensity from the time-course images was analyzed using a first-order kinetics model. Results: Phantom experiments demonstrated that EPR power deposition can be greatly reduced using the FSE-PEDRI pulse sequence compared with the conventional gradient echo pulse sequence. High temporal resolution was achieved at ∼4 s per image acquisition using the FSE-PEDRI sequence with a good image SNR in the range of 233-266 in the phantom study. The TEMPONE half-life measured in vivo was ∼72 s. Conclusion: Thus, the FSE-PEDRI pulse sequence enables fast in vivo functional imaging of free radical probes in small animals greatly reducing EPR irradiation time with decreased power deposition and provides increased temporal resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)471-475
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • electron paramagnetic resonance
  • fast MRI
  • free radicals
  • nitroxide
  • Overhauser MRI
  • redox imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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