In vivo photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds

Muyinatu A.Lediju Bell, Nathanael P. Kuo, Danny Y. Song, Jin Kang, Emad M. Boctor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations


We conducted an approved canine study to investigate the in vivo feasibility of photoacoustic imaging for intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. Brachytherapy seeds coated with black ink were inserted into the canine prostate using methods similar to a human procedure. A transperineal, interstitial, fiber optic light delivery method, coupled to a 1064 nm laser, was utilized to irradiate the prostate and the resulting acoustic waves were detected with a transrectal ultrasound probe. The fiber was inserted into a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy needle that acted as a light-diffusing sheath, enabling radial light delivery from the tip of the fiber inside the sheath. The axis of the fiber was located at a distance of 4-9 mm from the long axis of the cylindrical seeds. Ultrasound images acquired with the transrectal probe and post-operative CT images of the implanted seeds were analyzed to confirm seed locations. In vivo limitations with insufficient light delivery within the ANSI laser safety limit (100 mJ/cm2) were overcome by utilizing a short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer, which provided average seed contrasts of 20-30 dB for energy densities ranging 8-84 mJ/cm2. The average contrast was improved by up to 20 dB with SLSC beamforming compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamforming. There was excellent agreement between photoacoustic, ultrasound, and CT images. Challenges included visualization of photoacoustic artifacts that corresponded with locations of the optical fiber and hyperechoic tissue structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotons Plus Ultrasound
Subtitle of host publicationImaging and Sensing 2014
ISBN (Print)9780819498564
StatePublished - 2014
EventPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2014 - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 2 2014Feb 5 2014

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2014
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Brachytherapy
  • Dynamic dosimetry
  • Image-guided intervention
  • Intraoperative treatment planning
  • Optoacoustic
  • Photoacoustic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Biomaterials


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