Little is known about the in vivo development of resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CCR5 antagonists. We studied 29 subjects with virologic failure from a phase lib study of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc (VCV) and identified one individual with HIV-1 subtype C who developed VCV resistance. Studies with chimeric envelopes demonstrated that changes within the V3 loop were sufficient to confer VCV resistance. Resistant virus showed VCV-enhanced replication, cross-resistance to another CCR5 antagonist, TAK779, and increased sensitivity to aminooxypentane-RANTES and the CCR5 monoclonal antibody HGS004. Pretreatment V3 loop sequences reemerged following VCV discontinuation, implying that VCV resistance has associated fitness costs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science