In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females

Kimberly P. Miller, Christina Borgeest, Chuck Greenfeld, Dragana Tomic, Jodi A. Flaws

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Chemicals found in the environment as industrial byproducts or pollutants as well as those that are prescribed or part of our daily lives can have multiple effects on the human body. The manner in which we are exposed, and the levels we are exposed to are significant contributing factors. Adults have the bodily defense mechanisms in place to combat exposures to adverse toxicants and general pollution at a variety of levels. However, developing organisms may not have adequate defense mechanisms, and toxicants can have a significant effect on their health and development. In this review, we take particular note of the toxicities of chemicals on the developing female reproductive system as a result of in utero exposure. Environmental and prescribed chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diethylstilbestrol, and genistein, as well as others, will be reviewed for their in utero toxicity in the neuroendocrine system, the ovary, oviduct, placenta, uterus, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-131
Number of pages21
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 15 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Environmental chemicals
  • in utero
  • Reproductive tissues

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Toxicology


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