Implications of Kindling And Quenching For the Possible Frequency Dependence Of rTMS

R. M. Post, T. Kimbrell, M. Frye, M. George, U. McCann, J. Little, R. Dunn, H. li, S. R.B. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Kindling involves repeated administration of brief high-frequency electrophysiological stimulation of the brain at initially subthreshold intensities that eventually evoke full-blown seizures. It has thus been used not only as a model of epileptogenesis, but of long-term neuronal memory. Quenching is a phenomenon that utilizes low-frequency stimulation for much longer periods of time (eg, 1 Hz for 15 minutes), and appears to exert preventive effects on the development of kindling and inhibit the manifestation of full-blown kindled seizures by markedly increasing the amygdala afterdischarge and seizure threshold. (See also “Kindling and Quenching: Conceptual Implications for rTMS,” by Weiss and Post, page 32). The parameters of kindling and quenching with intracerebral stimulation of the amygdala in vivo are highly similar to those achieved in vitro in hippocampai slice preparations for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) and longterm depression (LTD), respectively. These neuroplastic changes are relatively long lasting and appear reversible at the level of synaptic function with either LTD or LTP capable of countering the effects of the other.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-60
Number of pages7
JournalCNS spectrums
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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