Implications of hypoxia in breast cancer metastasis to bone

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34 Scopus citations


Most solid tumors contain regions of hypoxia in which increased cell proliferation promotes increased oxygen consumption and the condition is further exacerbated as cancer cells become localized far from a functional blood vessel, further decreasing the oxygen supply. An important mechanism that promotes cell adaptation to hypoxic conditions is the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Hypoxia-inducible factors transcriptionally regulate many genes involved in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Patients, whose primary tumor biopsies show high HIF expression levels, have a greater risk of metastasis. The current review will highlight the potential role of hypoxia in breast cancer metastasis to the bone by considering the regulation of many steps in the metastatic process that include invasion, migration, margination and extravasation, as well as homing signals and regulation of the bone microenvironment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1669
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Bone
  • Breast cancer
  • Hypoxia
  • Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs)
  • Invasion
  • Metastasis
  • Migration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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